Conditions for compensation of damage from the state physical person, to the victim from criminal offense

Н. А. Хмельова

Abstract


According to the Constitution the state guarantees the rights and
freedoms, and in particular the protection of individuals affected by a criminal offence,
ensuring compensation of the caused material and moral damage. However, the analysis of
legislation and law enforcement practice indicates the need to strengthen the protection of
the rights and interests of individuals, of victims in criminal offences. Therefore,
clarification of terms require reimbursement by the state harm the physical person, the
victim of a criminal offence and the conditions for granting such compensation.
Relevance of the research topic: The problem of reimbursement by the state harm
the physical person, the victim of a criminal offence is one of the most urgent contemporary
law enforcement practice. Leaving the crime unsolved, insolvency of the guilty party to
compensate damages, the failure to take measures to ensure civil action and other reasons
make the protection of the legitimate interests of the victim, restoration of the violated
rights. Practice shows the necessity of creating a fundamentally new mechanism capable of
ensuring the timely reimbursement of the harm caused by crime to the victim. Therefore, the
investigation of these issues, development of recommendations aimed at improving current
legislation and its enforcement in this area are urgently needed.
Recent research and publications analysis: Analysis of recent research gives
reason to believe that the affected problems has been the subject of research of such
scientists as A. S. Alexandrov, L. M. Baranov, V. T. Bezlepkin, There.In. Blinkova, P. G.
Gureev, From.With. Saturn, V. T. Nord, S. I. Ostapenko, S. Is. Sirotenko and others.
However, the update of the regulatory material, in particular amendments to the Civil code
of Ukraine, adoption of the new Criminal procedural code of Ukraine, can not affect
scientific and practical interest in the conditions of modernity.
Paper objective: Requires clarification of the terms reimbursement from the state for
damage to a physical person, the victim of a criminal offence and the conditions for granting
such compensation and determining the appropriate mechanism for their implementation.
Paper main body: The most important task of the state, which tends to be called
legal, is to protect the rights and freedoms of each individual, using all possible means of
state influence, as the functioning of a legal state due to the interests and needs of its
citizens. Therefore, the harm caused to the victim as a result of a criminal offence, shall be
reimbursed by the state. That must happen is an effective mechanism of state liability before
the individual in the sphere of guaranteeing rights and freedoms. Thus, there will be a high
level of protection of the rights and freedoms of the individual. According to the current
civil legislation of Ukraine it is possible to determine General conditions for reimbursement
by the state harm the physical person, the victim of a criminal offence: 1) the presence of
harm; 2) wrongful conduct is a crime; 3) a causal relationship between the offense and the
damage, i.e. the damage is caused by committing the crime. In the scientific literature along
with the General terms of compensation by the state harm the physical person, the victim of
a criminal offence is also characterized by the presence of special conditions: 1) the victim
is a natural person; 2) the perpetrator is insolvent; 3) the perpetrator of criminal offence is
not established; 4) a person who commits criminal offense, it is established, but avoids
investigation and declared wanted. However, scientists believe that in addition to the
General and special conditions of reimbursement by the state physical person harm caused
by the offence, should be the conditions for granting such compensation. The European
Convention on compensation of victims of violent crimes of 24 November 1983 set
different conditions for compensation. First, according to the Convention compensation
schemes must set an upper limit above which and a lower limit, below which losses will not
be recovered. Secondly, the mode of compensation may establish a period during
which appeals will be accepted for reimbursement. Third, the damages may be
reduced or cancelled in light of the financial situation of the applicant.
Conclusions of the research: the state must ensure the safety of every member of
society, and if the authorities fail to prevent a criminal offence, the damages should be the
task of the state. The fulfilment of such requirements is the responsibility of Ukraine in the
light of the accession in 2005 to the European Convention of 1983, which can be
implemented through the adoption of a special law.


Keywords


the state; the physical person; the conditions; compensation; the damage; criminal offense

References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2225-6555.2015.2.63688

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