The amount of compensation by the state physical person, to the victim from the criminal offence. Rіght of recourse of the state to the person in fault

Н. А. Хмельова

Abstract


Problem setting: According to the domestic legislation the state fully assumed the responsibility of investigating crimes and finding the perpetrators of these crimes, eliminating the possibility of personal revenge of a victim before a criminal (vigilante). However, these tasks can only be performed if you implement at least two complementary mechanisms: the attraction of guilty persons to criminal liability and compensation for harm to a physical person, which is suffered as a result of a criminal offense. The last movement, for a number of reasons, is imperfect and inefficient, and therefore extremely problematic for today's law enforcement practices.

Relevance of the research topic: For the victim of a criminal offence and the personality important is the reality and the amount of compensation of such harm, both criteria depend directly on the effectiveness and timeliness designed to ensure such compensation enforcement actions. However, due to the large percentage of unsolved crimes victims do not receive any reparation for their offence harm that is not consistent with the norms of the Civil code of Ukraine, which regulate relations in the sphere of compensation of harm not only national legislation but international legal acts ratified by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

Recent research and publications analysis: Analysis of recent research gives reason to believe that the affected problems has been the subject of research of such scientists as A. S. Alexandrov, L. M. Baranov, V. T. Bezlepkin, There.In. Blinkova, P. G. Gureev, From.With. Saturn, V. T. Nord, S. I. Ostapenko, S. Is. Sirotenko and others. However, the update of the regulatory material, in particular amendments to the Civil code ofUkraine, adoption of the new Criminal procedural code ofUkraine, can not affect scientific and practical interest in the conditions of modernity.

Paper objective: Need clarification in the scope of reparation by the state physical person, the victim of a criminal offence and the right of recourse of the state to the person in fault.

Paper main body: in the Civil code ofUkraine refers to the General obligation of States to compensate damage caused by a criminal offence, under appropriate conditions, however, the amount of such compensation is not specified. Therefore, as a General rule it can be argued that the harm must be compensated in full. Norms of civil legislation do not accidentally indicate that the conditions and procedure for compensation of harm caused a criminal offence determined by law, i.e. it is assumed that a special law may contain certain reservations and exceptions to the General rules of compensation for damage provided for in the Civil code ofUkraine. Limits on the amount of compensation by state for damage caused by a criminal offence, is quite fair, because the state cannot reimburse all the damage or injury, subject to certain conditions. Otherwise, individuals not to resort to methods of reducing loss in different situations, for example, individuals do not need to insure the property against criminal attacks because the government will reimburse. Civilni code of Ukraine provides that the person to compensate for damage caused by another person, has the right of return claim (regress) to a guilty person in the amount of the paid compensation if other size is not established by law, must be established wines of a particular tortfeasor in committing a crime. That is, the right of recourse of the state to the person in fault should be implemented only after determining in its actions of structure of a crime by a court that has gained legal force, because in the process of recognition of the person accused in the case, her guilt is not yet proven.

Conclusions of the research: for the normal regulation of legal relations in this sphere should pass a law that would provide for: the scope, boundary limits of indemnity and the dependence of its size on material situation of the victim, as a guarantee of observance of the principle of social justice, the establishment of the order of the subrogation claim of the state to a person who has committed a criminal offence


Keywords


the state; the victim; the crime; the damage; compensation; the recourse

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21564/2225-6555.2016.1.64233

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