Evolution of the legal regulation of marriage and family relations in Ukrainian lands during X – XIX centuries

Ю. М. Походзіло, К. П. Силенок

Abstract


Statement of problem. In Ukraine nowadays every year the family institution loses its meaning. There is a growing trend towards so-called "civil marriage", frequent divorce, and young people do not want to marry. You should also remember the wedding, ceremony, which is primarily a spiritual meaning, not just a contract. As a form of marriage in general it has lost its value and almost never used. We can not ignore and gay marriage, the debate over which unabated. There are many points of view, various studies and surveys on this. In many countries, such marriages are allowed, but multiple opponents argue that it is contrary to the very definition of family and marriage. So today there is a need to explore the genesis concepts of marriage and family. Recent research and publication analysis. The question of marriage and family relations was always interested researchers because the family and the family is the foundation of every human life. Recent research and public study on matrimonial customary law pre-Christian times in his writings pay attention Hrushevsky, Ivan Krypiakevych, I. Belyaev, M. ascend-Budanov, V. Serhiyevych, Shulgin, S. Yushkov, N. Pushkarev, N. Belyaev. The question of civil-legal regulation of property relations in Kievan Rus according to the norms of n Pravda was the subject of study of various scientists. These include, in particular, B. Grekov , P.Muzychenko, V. Rubanyka, W. Kulczycki, P. Zakharchenko, V. Serhiyevycha and others. In the nineteenth century the question of family relations, family and inheritance redistribution members of one family studied Pahman S., M. Kachanov, Barykov A., Mukhin, Alexander Leontiev. Paper objective. The article is a comprehensive analysis of the formation of marriage and family relations arising from the fact of belonging to a marriage and family in the Ukrainian lands in their development during X – XIX centuries. Paper main body. Analyzed the issue of marriage and family relations in the process of formation and development in Ukraine. History of the Ukrainian family law reaches ancient times, even before the formation of Kievan Rus as a state, let alone the adoption of Christianity. In ancient times in our history the Ukrainian lands major factor regulating social relations advocated custom. Personal property and non-property rights of spouses dependent on the shape and conditions of marriage. Matrimonial law Kievan Rus was a kind and unique because formed based on Byzantine law, pagan rituals, various folk customs and princely legislation. To simplify and facilitate the marriage in 1897 was issued a collection of religious and civil laws on divorce and judicial proceedings in matrimonial matters, where it was said that people of Orthodox religion can marry among themselves and with foreigners Orthodox and all other Christian denominations not asking for special permission from the authorities, but with all the marriage requirements. Conclusions of research. Examining the different forms of marriage in the Pagan era, one could argue that the echoes of ancient customs can be seen today in the marriage rites. The adoption of Christianity created favorable conditions for the rapid development of social, economic, political and spiritual relations, preparing the ground for organizing the legal system, both in general and in the field of marriage and family relations. Christianity, including Orthodox Church, had a great influence on the formation of new ethical norms of life which, to some extent found their reflection in the new legal system. Further evolution took place right in the direction of humanization. Thus, the Christian church has become a stabilizing factor in the socio-political system and legal development as Kievan Rus and modern Ukraine. The provisions of customary law XVII-XVIII reflected in the laws of the Russian Empire concerning marriage, conditions for its conclusion and termination, family rights and responsibilities and so on. These laws, some provisions of which began to operate from late XVII-XVIII century. In the nineteenth century. already fully regulate marriage and family relationships population, including Ukraine as part of the Russian Empire, and acted to the October revolution in 1917 however they were not straightforward and often contradicted each other. On the one hand provide extensive freedom and independence of women, on the other - completely denied their rights. Full union of church and state, which was one of the important principles of society at the time, was at the heart of marriage laws: the laws given not only features the marriage of some segments of the population, but were certain provisions of the laws concerning marriage of people of different Christian denominations and marriage do not Christians. The state determined the only legitimate church marriage, the main proof of marriage was a record in the parish (metric) book. As for the rights and responsibilities of spouses, they are completely controlled by the church, the state and meet the requirements of the then social, though not entirely satisfy the desire of family members.


Keywords


marriage and family relations; marriage; property and non-property personal rights of spouses

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2225-6555.2015.2.63575

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