Biological and Psychological Theories of Juveniles Delinquency in the United States

О. Ю. Шостко

Abstract


Biological and psychological factors play an important and
sometimes decisive role in aggressive behavior of juveniles and adults, which leads
to committing various crimes against life and health of individuals. Contemporary
American criminologists widely use the achievements of geneticists, biochemists,
neurologists and point out on importance of their knowledge. Unfortunately,
scientific works of foreign scientists are little known in Ukraine.
Recent research and publication analysis. American theories of the juvenile
delinquency causation are considered in the works such post Soviet scholars as O.
Vedernikova, Y. Gilinskiy, I. Danshin, V. Tulyakov, S. Denisov, S.Nezhurbida and
others.
Paper objectives. Systematization of the classical biological and
psychological theories of juvenile delinquency that widespread in the United States.
A brief description of the main theories that have the greatest impact on the
development of measures to juvenile delinquency prevention.
Paper main part.
Modern criminologists believe there are some biological factors increases the
probability of individuals engaging in illegal acts, but denying hard determinism
between these phenomena. They tend to consider biological factors, social conditions
and the environment as a reason that jointly affect human behavior. Biosocial
theories focus primarily on the problem: why previously law-abiding citizens
"suddenly" commit crimes, and those, who had in past criminal history are worthy
members of society. However, biosocial theories subjected to serious criticism from
the scientific community to lack of sufficient empirical data.
Psychological approaches of explanation delinquency used quite extensively
by American criminologists. Representatives of social science have emphasized the
importance of this area of knowledge. Special prevention programs for juveniles,
based on these psychological concepts, developed and implemented in the United
States.
Conclusions of the research. Domestic criminologists, representatives of
other sciences not studied enough bio psychological component of juvenile for
further consideration and synthesis of different behavioral actions of the person
depending on his bio psychological peculiarities. As a result, in the practical activities
of prevention of juvenile delinquency are not captured in complex anatomical and
physiological, genetic, neuro-brain and other properties of the child's body, which in
the early formation of the personality become critical.


Keywords


Juvenile delinquency; biosocial theories; psychological theories; learning disabilities theory

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2225-6555.2015.1.63483

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