The legal grounds for derogation of Ukraine from some obligations, which are defined by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

Жанна В'ячеславівна Чевичалова

Abstract


Modern international human rights treaties may envisage the rights of states, which participate in these treaties, to derogate from contractual obligations under emergency circumstances. The existence of the right to derogate (based on the provisions of the law of the state right to withdraw from the fulfillment of certain contractual obligations) has a significant impact on the state behavior in the field of ensuring and protecting human rights.

On May 21st,2015,Ukraine used this right as a member of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (hereinafter referred to as the Convention), Art. 15 of which establishes the right to derogate from obligations in emergency situations, which led to a closer study by scientists of the question of the derogation right.

The normative consolidation of the right to a derogation, in particular in Art. 15 of the Convention treats the possibility of the existence of an objective necessity to reduce the level of protection of human rights and freedoms. Contemporaneously  with consolidating the right of the state to the derogation, these provisions of the law contain conditions designed to prevent the unjustifiably wide application of this very right.

According to the basic requirements, which are contained in Art. 15, first of all, it is enshrined that the right to withdraw from the state's obligations can arise only due to the war or another public danger threatening the life of the nation.

The next key requirement is that measures taken by the state in derogation from their obligations should strictly correspond to the severity of the situation.

The third requirement is the inadmissibility of the extension of the right to derogate to the rights, the protection of which is guaranteed by the polls, the list of which is given in Art. 15 of the Convention.

Also these measures should not contradict other obligations of the state in accordance with the International Law.

And, indisputable is the condition of compliance with the procedural requirements, enshrined in Sect. 3 of Art. 15 concerning the official public announcement of the derogation, which contains some information about the measures taken by the state and the reasons for taking them.

Compliance with the requirements, mentioned above, will be served, in particular, by the activities of the Temporary Consultative Body of The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Multiagency Commission on the questions of Ukraine derogation from the duties regarding the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which was established on April 19th, in accordance with the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

The activities of the Commission will help to prevent the abuse of the right of the State to derogate from certain obligations defined by the Covenant and the Convention and unreasonable reduction of the level of human rights protection and freedoms as the matter of fact that Ukraine may use this right. And at the same time, as it is rightly suggested in the publications, considering the Court practice, it may be advisable for the applicants to formulate appropriate complaints even in situations in which they are possible due to the derogation of Ukraine, whereas it is the Court that will ultimately assess the derogation and the necessity for taking certain measures under circumstances, existing in the occupied territories of Ukraine and in some areas of ATO (anti-terrorist operation).

Keywords


protection of human rights; derogation in time of emergency Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms; right to a derogation

References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21564/2225-6555.2017.12.117278

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